By William Woodruff

This e-book investigates the main alterations in global background and global financial system in past times years and explains to what quantity global forces were chargeable for shaping either previous and current. Its underlying subject is the fight for strength during which, because the 16th century, the West has prevailed. some of the difficulties of the modern international - together with terrorism - are the legacy of the interval of Western domination. until eventually the increase of the West, and its incomparable effect on each department of human task, the centre of the realm has been in Asia. by means of the 19th century global strength was once firmly within the arms of the West. America's later upward thrust to international prestige used to be brought on by means of the 2 global wars. the main fashionable of the Western countries, the USA is now blamed for all of the excesses of an prior colonial age.

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Out of the revolts of the nineteenth century in Italy emerged a modern state. In 1859 Austria, having invaded Piedmont to put down a rising engineered by the Premier of Sardinia-Piedmont, Count Camillo Benso di Cavour (b. 1810, premier 1851-61), was defeated by French troops under Napoleon III (b. 1808, reigned 1852-70, d. 1873). Piedmont gained its independence, and France obtained Nice and Savoy. The next year (1860) Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-82) and his guerrilla army of red shirts, having defeated a Neapolitan army in Sicily, took Naples.

While Spain's vast empire was probably at the height of its power in 1600 (its navy was still the equal of the English and the Dutch combined), the loss of the Armada undermined its leading position at sea. Spain's trade, agriculture and shipping were all neglected. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it was the Dutch who carried Spain's colonial products from the Iberian peninsula to northern Europe. As for the profits of the colonial trade, much of these in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries went to British North American merchants who spent them in England.

Empir. Russian ~ BOlildary of th. Holy Roman Empire ~. :, s::::: tT1 ~ '1:! 1-1556 Europe: 1500-1914 27 a strong appeal to middle-class interests. Following Luther, he believed that biblical authority took precedence over priestly mediation. His disciple John Knox (1505-72) launched the Reformation in Scotland, then ruled by Catholic Mary Stuart (b. 1542, reigned 1561-7, d. 1587) Queen of Scotland. 6 In 1560 the Scottish parliament severed its relations with Rome in favour of Knox's Scottish Presbyterian Church.

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