By James H. Nichols
Nichols examines the main writings of Alexandre Kojève, and clarifies the nature and brings to mild the significance of his political philosophy. whereas emphasizing the political size of Kojève's inspiration, Nichols treats all his significant released writings and exhibits how the remarkably diversified components of Kojève's highbrow exercise cross jointly. this can be a necessary evaluation of Kojève which considers the works that preceded his flip to Hegel, seeks to articulate the nature of his Hegelianism, and displays intimately at the diversified meanings that the top of background had in diversified classes of his idea.
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So, for example, one is not implicitly guaranteeing that what one says is true if one says something manifestly false as a joke to a friend in an ironic tone of voice. In many cases, it is unclear whether those who speak are warranting the truth of what they say. For example, suppose that I deliberately make a false statement to a person whom I know to be very gullible, but give a very subtle indication that I might be joking (I might, for example, raise an eyebrow very slightly). In such a case, it is unclear whether I am warranting the truth of what I say and, therefore, unclear whether or not this should be considered a lie.
Ordinary language counts the example in question as a case of lying. There is a strong presumption against any deﬁnition of lying so much at odds with ordinary language. Using the term ‘‘lying’’ in accordance with this deﬁnition is likely to engender confusion. Pragmatic considerations also weigh against this deﬁnition of lying. L2 makes it impossible for us to determine whether or not certain acts are lies until we have ﬁrst resolved difﬁcult and controversial moral questions about whether someone has a right to know the truth (cf.
In addition, one might lie in order to ‘‘go on record’’ as saying something, as in the case of the man who lies in order to keep his promise to his uncle. Convention dictates that there are circumstances, for example, when people tell stories or attempt to be humorous, which remove the default warranty of truth from our statements. The linguistic conventions of our society imply that, in the case of statements that are clearly not intended be humorous or tell a story, the default warranty of truth is usually very strong.