By ANJAN CHAKRAVARTTY

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Characterizing the Frequency Response of Headphones – a new Paradigm

Writer: Horbach, Ulrich
Affiliation: Harman complicated expertise staff, Northridge, CA, USA
AES conference: 138 (May 2015)
Paper quantity: 9274
Publication Date: may well 6, 2015
Subject: Transducers

Traditional headphone measurements be afflicted by huge adaptations if performed on human topics with probe microphones, and standardized couplers introduce extra biases, as concluded in a up to date paper. past that, there isn't any transparent indication in literature approximately what the particular perceived frequency reaction of a headphone should be. This paper explores new size equipment that stay away from the human physique up to attainable through measuring the headphone at once, in an try to conquer those regulations and achieve extra accuracy. layout rules are defined within the moment half. a unique, DSP managed top of the range headphone is brought that gives the power to auto-calibrate its frequency reaction to the person who's donning it.

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Logical positivism was, in effect, the founding movement of modern philosophy of science, and the radical empiricism of the positivists has had a lasting impact. It will be useful in what follows to clarify my second distinction, between unobservables that are detectable and those that are not. 1). The mitochondrion, for example, is a cellular organelle in which substances are oxidized to produce energy. Though unobservable, one can detect mitochondria using microscopy. A celebrated historical example of a more indirect case of detection is the neutrino, a subatomic particle originally posited by Wolfgang Pauli and theorized about by Enrico Fermi in the 1930s.

One should adopt a stance that is rational and reject those that are not. The variable criterion is the set of values that leads an agent to adopt one stance over another. I will return to the issue of values momentarily, but first let us consider van Fraassen’s conception of rationality, which is famously thin. It is rationally permissible, he says, to hold any stance or believe any set of facts that is logically consistent and probabilistically coherent. Incoherence was originally explicated (1989) in terms of holding combinations of beliefs that are exploitable by Dutch books to the detriment of the belief-holder (making bets all of whose possible outcomes are unfavourable), and consistency and coherence are usually understood as logical constraints, straightforwardly applicable to propositional things like factual beliefs.

This includes not only speculations about things like universals and causal necessity, which are familiar topics within metaphysics, but also speculations about mitochondria and neutrinos, which are familiar topics within the sciences. But empiricists are generally happy to do metaphysics so long as it does not involve believing speculations about the unobservable. Thus Hume gives an account of causation, not in terms of undetectable necessary connections, but solely in terms of observable events that follow one another.

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