By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)

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Whereas temperature always forms part of the climogram, it is not always clear whether humidity should be applied as precipitation or as relative humidity. This question may be settled only after knowing the biology of the species. Species, the eggs, larvae, and pupae of which dwell in the soil, as in the case of N octuid moths, are subjected mainly to the influence of precipitation and the epidemics which they bring about. , which are mainly subjected to air-humidity, on which depends their adult longevity, are most suitably analysed with regard to air-humidity.

At Honolulu. B. at Tel Aviv in the fruitfty year 1927 and in 1932 when weather did not favour it. 8 76 165 1 -1 1 1/3 1 1 1 8 4 4 2 0 2 0 .. H. mm. rains Climatic index : 18 Rain-factor Generation-factor Host-factor oc 49 s rl- ~ '"1 (1) P' ;:I *"' ...... ;:I o.. s· ~ ~§ ..... P' ;:::1 ...... 0" ;:::1 (1) ..... rl- <(b .... "0 < >0 ~~ 0 ...... (1) 0 .... p,. 0 g. C" 0 ::::: · ~£ ";:I"' o::J 8';:::1"' (1) - rn ...... -+l:! (JQ (") P' (f) - - "do (1) '"1 Climatic index : 11 Rain-factor Generation-factor Host-factor mm.

The typical life-history of Coccinella septempunctata L. within the Euro-Siberian region is as follows: One generation develops during summer, coinciding with the season of aphid abundance. The young beetles hide for about seven months between leaves or in crevices. Climatic as well as food conditions must be considered as favourable. - For five to zero months the average temperature falls below the development threshold, but never considerably. Average temperatures surpass 23 ° C. for 2 to 4 months during summer, thus enforcing semi-estivation.

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