By Julia K. Parrish, William M. Hamner

Colleges of fish, flocks of birds, and swarms of bugs are examples of third-dimensional aggregation. overlaying either invertebrate and vertebrate species, the authors examine this pervasive organic phenomenon via a number of disciplines, from physics to arithmetic to biology. the 1st part is dedicated to some of the equipment, more often than not optical and acoustic, used to assemble 3-dimensional info over the years. the second one part specializes in analytical equipment used to quantify trend, crew kinetics, and interindividual interactions in the workforce. The part on behavioral ecology and evolution offers with the services of aggregative habit from the perspective of an inherently egocentric person member. the ultimate part makes use of versions to explain how crew dynamics on the person point creates emergent trend on the point of the gang.

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7. The proposed foveal sonar imaging system. 5 MHz. We plan to create a system which has a set of 8 2A degree X 2A degree beams with a concentric field of view (Fig. 7). This system could be used to image both the extent of a mass of zooplankton and the individual animals inside. Another possible use of this system is to look at predator-prey interactions between small fish and zooplankton. Because these two classes of animals have very different acoustic target strengths as a function of frequency, it has been difficult to simultaneously image both targets using one frequency.

Suppose that we desire a vector X which consists of 109 elements. What actually is measured is vector Y, related to X via a linear transformation X - H Y. In this case, the matrix H would consist of 109 X 109 elements, beyond the capability of current computers. , X-ray, computerized tomography) approximate this space as 1000 sets of 1000 X 1000 matrices, which can be computed quite easily. Methods for three-dimensional sensing 19 Let us imagine then, that we are interested in examining a state vector, S(X,t), at some number of three-dimensional locations, with some spatial resolution, AX and some temporal resolution, At.

Typically, fifty points along each of approximately ten plumb lines are observed (Fryer 1992). 2. A control frame for underwater calibrations. On-the-job calibration is used with nonmetric cameras. The technique is the same as calibration ranges except that the control points must surround the object to be measured, and must be used to calibrate the camera for each and every photograph. Although this overcomes the limitations of unstable interior orientation, on-the-job calibration has obvious disadvantages when measuring animal aggregations, namely the inconvenience of requiring some sort of control frame as well as its probable effects on animal behavior.

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